- Stroke or bleeding occurs in the baby's brain during development or after birth
- Child sustains a head injury or brain infection
- There are abnormalities of the umbilical cord or placenta, or the placenta separates too early from the wall of the uterus
- Child does not get enough oxygen during or after birth
- Child has meningitis, encephalitis, seizures, or head injury
- Child has genetic/metabolic abnormalities
- Brain tissue that may not develop correctly during pregnancy—growing fetus may experience a lack of oxygen or nutrients
- Mother has rubella, toxoplasmosis, or cytomegalovirus while pregnant
- Mother and child's blood types are not compatible causing severe jaundice
- Premature birth
- Low birth weight
- Complicated or premature delivery
- Multiple births, such as twins or triplets
- Breech birth
- In vitro fertilization (IVF)—in part due to multiple births associated with IVF
- Infection or blood clotting problems during pregnancy
- Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy
- Family history of CP in parent or sibling
- Seizures or intellectual disability in the expectant mother
- Cord prolapse
- Low Apgar score—a rating of the child's condition just after birth
- Vaginal or urinary tract infection during pregnancy
- High birth weight
- Type 1 diabetes in the expectant mother
- Small head
- Late to turn over, sit up, smile, or walk
- Trouble writing, buttoning a button, or other fine motor activities
- Difficulty walking or standing
- Tight, spastic muscles
- Weak muscles
- Poor balance
- Speech problems
- Unintentional body movements
- Difficulty swallowing
- Intellectual disability
- Learning disabilities
- Vision or hearing problems
- Decreased ability to feel pain or identify items by touch
- Problems with bowel and bladder control
- Breathing problems if food or water has accidentally entered the lungs
- Skin breakdown
- Low bone density and fractures
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- Decrease drooling
- Treat osteoporosis
- Treat spasticity
- Before getting pregnant, receive a vaccination for rubella.
- Seek early prenatal care.
- Receive testing for blood-type problems when pregnant. Get treatment if tests reveal incompatible blood types.
- Do not smoke , drink alcohol, or use drugs while pregnant.
- Put the baby in a child safety seat when in the car.
- Insist that the child wear a helmet when riding a bicycle.
- Seek help if you have, or want to, hurt the child.
- Keep poisons away from your child.
- Closely supervise bathing.
- Get your child immunized at the recommended time.
- If your baby becomes sick, call the doctor right away.
- For infants with brain injury at birth, hypothermia to lower body temperature can reduce the risk of tissue injury and of long-term problems.
United Cerebral Palsy http://www.ucp.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Ontario Federation for Cerebral Palsy http://www.ofcp.ca
Ashwal S, Russman BS, Blasco PA, et al. Practice parameter: diagnostic assessment of the child with cerebral palsy: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology. 2004;62(6):851-863.
Cerebral palsy (CP). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 7, 2014. Accessed September 9, 2014.
Cerebral palsy (CP). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/cp/index.html. Updated July 1, 2015. Accessed September 15, 2015.
Cerebral palsy: hope through research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral%5Fpalsy/detail%5Fcerebral%5Fpalsy.htm. Updated July 2, 2015. Accessed September 15, 2015.
Hazneci B, Tan AK, Guncikan MN, Dincer K, Kalyon TA. Comparison of the efficacies of botulinum toxin A and Johnstone pressure splints against hip adductor spasticity among patients with cerebral palsy: a randomized trial. Mil Med. 2006;171(7):653-656.
Johnson SL, Blair E, Stanley FJ. Obstetric malpractice litigation and cerebral palsy in term infants. J Forensic Leg Med. 2011;18(3):97-100.
Nolan KW, Cole LL, Liptak GS. Use of botulinum toxin type A in children with cerebral palsy. Phys Ther. 2006;86(4):573-584.
Park ES, Park CI, Chang HC, Park CW, Lee DS. The effect of botulinum toxin type A injection into the gastrocnemius muscle on sit-to-stand transfer in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Clin Rehabil. 2006;20(8):668-674.
Steinbok P. Selection of treatment modalities in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Neurosurg Focus. 2006;21(2):e4.
10/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mergler S, Evenhuis HM, Boot AM, et al. Epidemiology of low bone mineral density and fractures in children with severe cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009;51(10):773-778.
2/4/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Delgado MR, Hirtz D, Aisen M, et al. Practice parameter: pharmacologic treatment of spasticity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology. 2010;74:336-343.
7/30/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: United States Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves drug for chronic drooling in children. United States Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm220444.htm. Published July 28, 2010. Accessed September 15, 2015.
8/11/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Azzopardi D, Strohm B, et al. Effects of hypothermia for perinatal asphyxia on childhood outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(2):140-149.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 09/2015 -
- Update Date: 09/09/2014 -